Estudios Geográficos, Vol 73, No 272 (2012)

El desarrollo regional en la República Popular China: de la administración centralizada a la planificación del desarrollo


https://doi.org/10.3989/estgeogr.201210

JianNan Xu
Máster en Planificación y Gestión Sostenible de Proyectos de Desarrollo Rural. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, España

José Luis Yagüe Blanco
Grupo de investigación en Planificación y Gestión Sostenible del Desarrollo Rural-Local (GESPLAN), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, España

Resumen


Desde la fundación de la República Popular China el Gobierno Central ha estado buscando la vía más adecuada para conseguir el desarrollo regional. En el período de Mao el enfoque adoptó una perspectiva principalmente administrativa, tratando de mejorar la estructura de división y de gobierno del país. Con el inicio del período de reforma y apertura, el acento cambia al diseño de estrategias de desarrollo regional, aunque con tendencias cambiantes que van desde las políticas redistributivas hasta el modelo de desarrollo asimétrico, y los esfuerzos por combatir las desigualdades entre regiones y entre áreas urbanas y rurales de China. Este artículo realiza una revisión de los cambios producidos en China a través de todos estos procesos de regionalización, proporcionando un marco de referencia para comprender las diferentes etapas y ayudar a estudios más específicos sobre este país.

[fr] À partir de la fondation de la République populaire de Chine le gouvernement central a cherché le moyen le plus approprié pour atteindre le développement régional. Dans la période de Mao l'approche essentiellement adoptée fut un point de vue administratif, en essayant d'améliorer la structure de la division et le gouvernement du pays. Avec le début de la réforme et la période d'ouverture, les directives changent vers la conception de stratégies de développement régional, mais avec une évolution des tendances allant depuis les politiques de redistribution jusqu'au modèle de développement asymétrique, et les efforts pour lutter contre les inégalités entre les régions et entre les zones urbaines et rurales de La Chine. Cet article passe en revue les changements en Chine à travers tous ces processus de régionalisation, en fournissant un cadre pour comprendre les différentes étapes et pour aider les études plus spécifiques sur ce pays.

Palabras clave


desarrollo regional; República Popular China; división administrativa; planificación regional; regionalización; développement régional; République Populaire de Chine; division administrative; planification régionale; régionalisation

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